Epidemics of Chronic diseases is today associated with there in every four deaths in America today. This is the challenge associated with health programs promotions. Health promotion and maintenance can be achieved when the health workers concerned with public health fully understand the specific environment and health condition. The health promotions attain its goal when there is provision of a problem analyses and programs for creating awareness of the problem.
Tampa City, in Florida, is highly populated with African Americans and some immigrants who have been targeted in Health campaigns. Over the years, several health campaigns have been carried out in Tampa. One of them is the Get out and Race campaign which advocated for increased exercising to reduce most of the modern day diseases against the residents. Government departments such as Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) and The Center for Disease Control and Prevention have been on the forefront of this campaign. The two departments have incorporated their services in ensuring the success of the campaign to targets age groups of the entire population especially the older adults from the minority group of African Americans whom are at risk of developing diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.The residents of Tampa city face challenges such as inability to access health care for older adults and inferior medical attention to most of African Americans. They are discriminated along racial.The agencies have teamed up to tackle these issues. The Office of Disease prevention and health promotion has played the role of promoting health for the Americans faced with the problem of gaining access to health care. Public Health Service is another has offered the American people with reduced cost of health care and increased access to drugs.
The center of disease control and prevention has the mandate of introducing programs that will enable the community to have easy access to health care. This is done through data indicators showing if a community faces the challenge of inaccessibly to health care. The Office of Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion educates the public on it objectives and expectation from the public.The model and system of tracking accessibility to health facilities has been used to determine the availability of health center services among the entire population of Americans especially the old aged adults. This is because African Americans face financial challenges to afford available health care facilities, also, public health facilities are located away from the urban centers hence it becomes disadvantageous to the ailing people.The Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System has been successful in determining the behavior of the elderly individuals in Tampa County .These behaviors include, smoking and drinking which cause various health problems. The Functional Independence tool and risk assessment has been used to measure the functional and Cognitive abilities of the x-soldiers in the community fought in Iraq and Afghanistan wars. The access to health indicator is through the use of electronic surveillance machines as well as the use of hospital records
Specific issue and nationally identified health objectives
Access to health care for African Americans is an issue of national concern, which affects people whom over 65. The total population of persons more than 65 was recorded as 38.9 million in 2008. That represents 12.8% of the total American population such that it would be difficult to ignore this large group of seniors. Issues concerning access to health care for the older adults, most of the African Americans are greatly discriminated upon along racial lines and mostly end receiving inferior medical attention.Predisposing factors such as economic status of the individuals and their ethnicity are major causes of limited accessibility of health care facilities (Jang, Chiriboga, Borenstein, Small, & Mortimer, 2009). However, with the introduction of the Get Out and Go Racing campaign, more people can access information on ways of adopting healthy lifestyles. The major objective of this campaign is to increase awareness of health care accessibility and ways of minimizing the disparities that have been created in the health care department (Jang et al., 2009).Poor economic conditions for the African Americans mean that most of them are could not access quality health care services as they are not insured. The old above 65 years who are vulnerable to old age dieses are the most art risk because they are faced both wit poverty and inability to accesses medical services.
Agencies involved in the access to health care
The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion developed a health promotion campaign meant to promote health for Americans whom often faced with problems when accessing health care. This objective was formulated on the basis of increasing the span of healthy life, reducing health disparities between Black and White Americans together with increasing access to health services. The different aspects of Healthy People 2000 were assigned to different agencies within the department of Public Health Services. Priority was given to key areas such increased access to drugs as well as reduced costs of health care (Fos, & Fine, 2005).The Environmental Health Services Board provided services, which included benefits of indulging in physical exercises at specific times of the day to increase the body's metabolism. The department has also included the services of sanitarians and other practitioners to ensure that the residents can access health care services.The Center for Disease Control and Prevention was given the mandate of collecting data that included accessibility of health care as a health indicator of which the ideal program would be introduced to the public, marking the onset of the health care campaign (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).
Information on leading health indicators such as weight problems and mental health are quite essential in reflecting the health concerns of the public. Data on the quality of environment in which the people live in addition to accessibility of health care facilities was also collected. Social identities, which contribute to disparities in health care provision in America such as gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity, are crucial in achievement of the access to health care campaign (Jang et al., 2009).The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion were given the mandate of spreading information concerning the objectives and the expected response from the public. Various aspects of health promotion are crucial to increase accessibility to health care such as the community's willingness to adopt health care objectives (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).Participation of the public in the program has been emphasized by Healthy People in Healthy Communities, which has been striving to provide a pollution free environment together with increased accessibility to health care facilities. Presence of health care facilities across Tampa County has also been made possible by provision of mobile clinics in addition to more qualified professionals being deployed in the area (Fos, & Fine, 2005).
Models and systems used in analyzing accessibility to health facilities
A community tracking study was used to determine the percentage of minority seniors who were able to access available health care services. Information on the number of insured individuals was also taken and the nature of medical care they were exposed to identified. The time taken by medical professionals to respond to cases concerning African Americans was also obtained through observation in a number of health care centers. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention together with a group of public health providers formed Committee 22.1, which carried out research on the identified Health Status Indicators (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).Using the community tracking study was equally essential as it showed that there was a very close link between financial status of an individual and accessibility to health care.
This was directly shown by the inaccessibility of health care by individuals who depended on government health benefit schemes because the government spends more money on the health care of those who cannot afford. This increasing cost in health care has been threatening the entire United States economy (Jang et al., 2009).Every individual is given, without opposition by the center, an opportunity to exhibit healthy living habits by adoption of certain physical exercises. Behaviors such as jogging at least once in a day for some few minutes is seen as a way of minimizing diseases hence the problem of in- accessible health facilities will not be so critical. Participation in mental exercises as often as possible is also recommended as well as ensuring that one gets enough rest and sleep at night to enable the body to rest. Information gathered during epidemiological surveillance includes statistic on age, sex, diseases and the specific ways in which that population uses the health care facilities as well as they are accessible (Fos, & Fine, 2005).
Targeted population affected by inaccessibility of health issues
The entire population of African Americans has been facing problems accessing health care in most of the hospitals across Tampa County. However, it is more heartfelt among the seniors as most of them are affected by old-age-ailments. African Americans are especially affected because most are not well off financially hence they cannot afford the same health care facilities that are available for the White Americans (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).
The Tampa community is made up of mixed races and hence cases of disparities in communal services are not strange. Though most of the entire population is made up of the Hispanic majority, this makes them dominate the whole health care system thus minimizing chances for the minority to access the same.
The minority group also lacks exclusive insurance packages from employers because of the nature of employment and the sector in the industry (Jang et al., 2009).The public health facilities are usually located far away from the urban centers such that the ailing people may find it being a daring task to drive all the way. The seniors especially have to seek for the transportation services because of health condition. Consequently, the general well being of most senior residents is usually not very healthy and they cannot be allowed to travel all alone to health care facilities (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008). The old people need to have access to transport services. The federal transport program should offer public transport as this helps to reduce inconveniences. The idea of volunteers who offer transport is also noble.
Epidemiological surveillance systems
The Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is used in determining the epidemiology of health issues among the residents and especially the seniors. This system is used by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion to examine the behavior of elderly individuals so that the cause of various health problems may be identified. Considering behavior includes eating habits, physical activities as well as smoking and drinking habits. The most important aspect of this system is that it is available in Tampa County and it provides information concerning the behavioral activities, which cause certain health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).
Epidemiological tools and risk assessment in other areas
Another epidemiological tool used in assessing other areas of health care include the Functional Independence Measure, which was used to measure the cognitive and functional abilities of soldiers who had been in Iraq and Afghanistan. Similarly it was used to assess the scores and health care costs for recuperative treatment. This method was quite substantial in identifying the effect of rehabilitation on the soldiers after they were done with the war. According to the information obtained by the method, intensive health care in terms of rehabilitation therapy increased the functional ability of the soldiers. Thus, the health aspects of an individual are directly proportional to quality and amount of health care provided (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).
In assuring the health of the public, there will be need to focus beyond health status of an individual. The most appropriate approach is one which will deal with the general population. However this approach is expected to face various challenges like systemic problems, challenges to influence societal norms and the fear of change by the community members it is therefore a call for policy makers to adopt much broader perspectives and expanded commitments. This will mean that health will be approached in much broader perspective which will commit the nation to act and understand a full array of factors in Tampa that affect the population health (Matheson & Gillespie, 2008, p 44).To best address cultural, economic and social environments at the local level at Tampa's and Florida State, there should be national efforts what will add to those of the traditional sector. The health care delivery system and the governmental public health agencies are responsible for achieving effective intersectorol public health system. Public officials who have been elected in the region should also play their role in providing that basic resources to Tampa, like schools, hospitals, devolving agriculture, labor, commerce foreign policy and transportation to the minority groups. (Fairchild& Alkon, 2007)
Various best practices concerning community base intervention on health education can be developed. Projects like integrated service learning into Tampa community are important. Health programs are also meaningful because such programs d o incorporate service learning projects which can have major effect not only in Tampa but the other communities in Florida.MAPP is a strategic approach to improve the health of the community. This is a process which the community will benefit through improved quality of life and health through community wide strategic plans. When Tampa community uses MAPP approach, it w ill seek to achieve optimal health by using and I identifying the available resources wisely. The members will take into account circumstances their in and the unique needs through forming partnership for strategic actions (NACCHO, 2004, p 3)
The federal and local by laws are effective for effectively controlling of people behaviors such as smoking, drinking and use of illegal drugs which are harmfully to their health.The environmental health service aboard can implement and center of disease controls should come up with strategies and provide funds for the intervention strategies (Guilford &Morgan, 2003). The environmental health service board can provide funding for physical exercise among the African Americans so as to increase metabolism. The center for disease control and prevention can provide funding interventions strategies to support the health campaign and develop education programs to teach African American adults on how to change lifestyles so as to prevent diseases associated with old age (Fos & Fine, 2005).
Community-based response will help address the issues as the community will work with other agencies to create awareness in the community and make access to health care available for all. The nurses and other practitioners will help eliminate disparities in the community. In addition, community planning will help the community and other agencies plan how to prioritize needs in the community, and how to allocate funds. Access to health care for African American adults should be prioritized and more funds allocated to solve the issue. Need assessment will help the community bring beneficial health care to the people. Need assessment helps identify needs that need to be one of the priorities, and allocated more resources through need assessment of the community (Degutis, 2008, p 3).Social marketing is and alternative which involves using marketing applications so as to achieve specific behavioral goals for social good. Most campaigns have used social marketing to market their services. Social marketing will help African American change behaviors. It will help African American get access to health care, and reduce ailments associated with old age. Social marketing will help the community teach the African Americans on how to eat healthily, and live well so as to avoid old age infections.
In addition, social marketing will help the public understand the relationship between behaviors and diseases. This will help influence people to take action to control diseases. The African American adults will be taught how certain behaviors can help reduce old age diseases (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008pm 34).In line with the health maintenance and promotion that programs are more likely to succeed with clear understanding on specific health and environmental context. In addition, health promotions are more successful when the analysis problems are provided and programs, taking awareness benefits into account of different levels of influenced. The analysis shows as one of effective and successful program to promote access to health care for old aged specifically the African American individuals.By understanding the health problems that a community faces, several approaches which address the challenges have to be implemented to suit the society. Tampa faces health, social and economic problems which have to be addressed individually to enhance the health and living condition of the community.
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